How lenders decide

How do lenders decide whether or not to loan you money? Many look at “The 5 Cs” of credit.

The word 'Approved' is stamped on top of a checklist with the words credit history, capacity, capital, collateral, and conditions.

Credit history
When lenders evaluate credit history they look at stability — for example, how long you’ve lived at your current address, how long you’ve been in the military, how long your spouse has had their current job, and whether you have a good record of paying your bills on time and in full.

Capacity
Your other debts and expenses could impact your ability to repay the loan. Creditors therefore evaluate your debt-to-income ratio, that is, how much you owe compared to how much you earn. The lower your ratio, the more confident creditors will be in your capacity to repay the money you borrow.

Capital
Capital refers to your net worth — the value of your assets minus your liabilities. In simple terms, how much you own (for example, car, real estate, cash, and investments) minus how much you owe.

Collateral
Collateral refers to any asset of a borrower (for example, a home) that a lender has a right to take ownership of and use to pay the debt if the borrower is unable to make the loan payments as agreed.

Some lenders may require a guarantee in addition to collateral. A guarantee means that another person signs a document promising to repay the loan if you can’t.

Conditions
Lenders might consider a number of outside circumstances that may affect the borrower’s financial situation and ability to repay, for example what’s happening in the local economy.

Some lenders develop loan decision “scorecards” using the 5 C’s and other factors.

Learn about credit in the topic All About Credit.

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